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Chinese Nation - Mongols

Mongols, a traditionally nomadic people mainly distributed in East Asia, is one of the ethnic minorities in China, and also the main ethnic group in Mongolia. In addition, it is also considered to be a branch of Mongols in Russia.
The Mongols originated from the East Bank of Wangjian River in ancient times. At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongolians headed by Genghis Khan unified all the Mongolians and gradually formed a new ethnic community.
Mongolian people live in grassland for a long time and live by animal husbandry. Living a nomadic life of “living by water and grass”, although this way of life has been weakened in modern society, it is still regarded as the symbol of Mongolian.
Mongolian people are more developed in science and culture, and music and dance also occupy a relatively prominent position in art.

Development history

There are about 10 million Mongolians in the world. The language is Mongolian. Half of them live in the territory of the people’s Republic of China. In 1271, the name of the Mongol Khanate was changed to Yuan state, or “Tuolei Khanate”, which is the official beginning of the Yuan Empire. Kublai Khan became the emperor, and later the Mongols respected the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols achieved the largest range of unification in the history of Asia and Europe and became the largest and most powerful military country in the world at that time. The Yuan Empire created by the Mongols created the system of “province”, which has been used since 800 years ago, and the name of “province” has also been used now. At present, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, and other ethnic areas are under the jurisdiction of the autonomous region. Yunnan, Sichuan, North China, and Northeast China were brought under the powerful jurisdiction of the central government of the Mongol Yuan Empire. Xuanzhengyuan was set up to directly manage Tibet, the Penghu inspection department was set up to manage Penghu and Taiwan, and the chieftain system was set up in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Kang, and other ethnic areas, which strengthened the control of the Mongolian Khan over the border areas. The unification of the Yuan Empire established by the Mongols is of far-reaching significance in world history. At the same time, it put an end to the political situation of separatist regimes and the coexistence of several regimes since the end of the Tang Dynasty and established the political situation of the unification of the yuan and Qing empires. In particular, Mongolia achieved the greatest range of unification in the Yuan Empire and brought Tubo into the territory. The formation of the multi-ethnic unified Yuan Empire is of vital importance in world history.
During the Qing Dynasty, Monan Mongolia (Inner Mongolia), most of Mobei Mongolia (Outer Mongolia), and Moxi Mongolia were included in the territory of the Qing Empire. Kharka in Outer Mongolia was attacked by the Zhungeer tribe of Moxi Mongolia, and the three tribes of Outer Mongolia were defeated. Zebulon Zunba living Buddha (Tibetan Buddhism, the same belief as to the Qing Empire) in Outer Mongolia belonged to the Qing Empire, not to tsarist Russia. He said, “Russia doesn’t believe in Buddhism and its clothes are weird. The Manchu Qing Empire was prosperous, and they believed in Buddhism. They had endless treasures, such as silk, silk, and satin. Depending on them, they would have a happy life. “. In 1696, German was defeated by the three armies of the Qing army and killed himself the next year. Since then, more than 1.8 million square kilometers of Mobei have been included in the territory of the Qing Empire. After the mid-18th century, Mongolian Turkut broke through the obstruction of tsarist Russia and returned to the Qing Dynasty.
Half of the Mongolians in the world live in China. The national policy of the people’s Republic of China has made the social, cultural, and economic development of the Mongolians. China’s multi-ethnic family and all ethnic groups prosper together, reflecting the enlightened ethnic relations.

Clothes & Accessories

Mongolian costumes include robes, belts, boots, jewelry, etc. However, there are differences in styles due to different regions. Taking women’s robes as an example, the Mongols in Horqin and kara in regions have Manchu characteristics. They usually wear wide and straight robes to the heel, with split ends on both sides, and the neckline and cuffs are often covered with various colors of lace; the Mongols in Xilinguole grassland wear large and narrow sleeves with no split edges; the Buryat women wear waist skirt style long robes; the Ordos women’s robes are divided into three pieces, The first one is a close-fitting garment with the sleeve length reaching to the wrist, the second one is a coat with the sleeve length reaching to the elbow, and the third one is a collarless, double-breasted shoulder with straight rows of flashing buttons.
The robes worn by the Mongols in Qinghai are similar to those of the Tibetans. Except for Qinghai, men’s clothing varies little from place to place. In spring and autumn, they wear Jiabao, in summer they wear a single robe, and in winter they wear cotton or leather robes. Mongolians usually like to wear cloth clothes, and they usually wear silk clothes with a tapestry edge on New Year’s day or festival. Men’s clothes are mostly blue and brown, while women’s clothes like red, pink, green and sky blue. The belt is an important part of Mongolian clothing, which is made of silk or cotton cloth with a length of three or four meters. Men’s belt hanging knife, sickle, snuff box, and other accessories. Mongolian boots are divided into leather boots and cloth boots. Mongolian boots are exquisitely made with exquisite patterns on the upper. Wearing jewelry and hats is a Mongolian custom. Hats in different regions also have local characteristics. Mongolian hats in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, and other places have high tops and flat edges. The inside is made of white felt, and the outside is decorated with leather or dyed purple green felt for decoration. It is thick in winter and thin in summer. The top of the hat is decorated with Tassels and the ribbon is silk, which can be worn by both men and women. Blue and Buryat Mongols in Hulunbeier, with shawls for men and flipped eaves for women. Agate, jadeite, coral, pearl, silver, and other precious raw materials make Mongolian jewelry rich. Men’s colors are mostly blue, dark brown, and some are wrapped with silk. Women usually wrap their heads with red and blue handkerchiefs and wear conical hats like men in winter.
Mongolian men wear long gowns and aprons. Women’s sleeves are embroidered with lace patterns, and their tops are high necked, which seems to be similar to the ethnic group. Women like to wear three pieces of clothing of different lengths. The first one is a close-fitting garment with a sleeve length to the wrist, the second one is a coat with the sleeve length to the elbow, and the third one is a collarless cardigan with straight flashing buttons, which is particularly eye-catching.
Men’s belt hanging knife, sickle, snuff box, and other accessories. Like to wear soft leather boots, long to the knee. Most of the farmers wear cloth clothes, such as slit robes and cotton-padded clothes. In winter, they often wear felt boots, while high boots are rare. Men wear blue and black-brown hats, and some use silk to wrap their heads. Women usually wrap their heads with red and blue handkerchiefs and wear conical hats like men in winter. The unmarried woman separated her hair from the front and middle, tied up two hair roots with two big beads on them, and her hair was slightly drooping, decorated with agate, coral, Jasper, etc. There are more distinctive is the Mongolian wrestling clothes.
Mongolian wrestling costume is a kind of Mongolian costume craft. Wrestling costumes include shoulders, trousers, panties, and colored silk belts. The shoulders are bare. The trousers are wide. There are many patterns on the trousers, such as cloud pattern, plant pattern, and longevity pattern. The pattern is rough and powerful with strong color contrast. The underpants are made of 10-meter cloth. It is also suitable for wrestling, which makes it difficult for opponents to use leg wrapping. The trousers are sewn with a tough and strong cloth or flannel. The knee is stitched with various colored cloth blocks to make patterns. The patterns are generous and solemn, indicating good luck. Each part of the clothing is matched properly and integrated, which has the national characteristics of bravery.
Mongols food

Cultural customs

(1) Etiquette

Singing: the Mongolian People’s persuasion to drink is often expressed through sincere singing. Singing and persuasion are carried out at the same time. After one person is the lead singer, everyone raises a glass to sing a chorus, and then everyone cheers together. After several times of this, the wine is hearty. There are ceremonial singing, impromptu singing,  and chorus singing. Their singing is often full of joy, all night long. Hospitality: the Mongolian people have the traditional virtue of hospitality, which has been handed down from ancient times to the present. The development of Mongolian traditional music is closely related to the development of its history and literature. Poetry is accompanied by music, songs contain poetry, and poetry coexists. Mongolian folk songs are rich in content, wide in subject matter, and vast in quantity. They can be divided into Eastern Mongolian folk songs and Simon folk songs by region, and long tune, short tune, Chaori, narrative song, Jiuling, children’s song, lullaby, religious song “Bo”, song and dance song “Andai” and “haodugeqin” by song type.
Hunting dogs: Mongolian people have the custom of hunting dogs. Therefore, they attached great importance to the selection and retention of a good hunting dog – “tiger”, that is, the castrated short-haired dog. We should pay attention to the good breed of hounds, that is to say, we should choose the dogs with long waist, long and symmetrical tail, sensitive hearing, keen eyesight, quick movement, and fast running from the improved breeds.
Greetings: the Mongolians are hospitable. When they meet, they should greet each other, even strangers. When they meet with their peers and acquaintances, they usually ask “Saibeinu”. If they meet the elders for the first time, they should ask “Taisaibeinu”. Entertaining passers-by is the traditional virtue of the Mongols, but to be a guest in the Mongolian home, we must respect the host. After entering the yurt, you should cross-legged around the stove and sit on the carpet, but the west side of the stove is the host’s residence, so you can’t sit casually when the host doesn’t sit. The host’s milk tea, the guests usually want to drink, do not drink impolite; the host please eat dairy products, the guests do not refuse, otherwise, it will hurt the host’s heart. If it’s inconvenient to eat more, a little will do.

(2) Naming

The characteristics of men’s naming are as follows:
1、 It is named after the culture of Han nationality. Such as Timur, user, Barthel, etc;
2、 They are named according to the expectations of their elders, such as gaseous (good luck), Bayar (joy), silver (wealth),  etc;
3、 According to the age of the elder when the baby was born, such as Tabin (50), Ji rental (60), daring (70), etc;
4、 They are named after brave animals, such as shabu (bird), Bala (tiger), red wolf (Wolf), but Shilang (lion), Burigude (Eagle), etc;
5、 According to the name of natural things, such as Charlie (stone), agile (mountain), Muren (River), Tala (field), etc;
6、 At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, people without education could only add up their parents’ dates as their names, such as Zhu Yuanzhang.
The characteristics of women’s naming are as follows:
1、 In the name of bright stars, such as nare (the sun), Saren (the moon), Aodun (the stars), Hasegawa (as beautiful as the sun), Sarengova (as beautiful as the moon), etc;
2、 In the name of beautiful plants and trees, such as sailing flower (Shandan flower), Qiqige (flower), Mabuchi (leaf), Begonia, etc;
3、 In the name of jewelry and jade, such as Haas (jade), Tana (Pearl), Alatangova (beautiful as gold), etc;
4、 In the name of an ideal, such as Siqin (intelligent), Wuyun (intelligent), Gaowa (beautiful), Siqin Gaowa (beautiful and intelligent), etc.
According to this method, the names of Mongolian women can be divided into many kinds. The most important feature of modern Mongolian names is that they do not have a prefix. Therefore, they are only names and should not be understood as names. There are very few names with a prefix, which is only an individual phenomenon.

(3) Marriage customs

Young men and women in Mongolia should choose an auspicious day when they get married, and the man should send betrothal gifts to the woman’s home.
Betrothal gifts include cash, clothes, cloth, jewelry, rice, etc. There are cabinets, bedding, clothes, jewelry, electrical appliances, bicycles, rice, melon seeds, etc. The key is sent by the bride’s family to keep. When the bride arrives at the man’s home, the groom’s mother will take money to redeem the key and give it to the bride. On the day before marriage, the man should send the red paper sheep’s back (shuts or such) and wine to the woman’s home, which can be used as gifts and entertaining guests.
On the wedding day, the bridegroom will accompany her husband to the bride’s home, and at the same time choose some vegetables to send to the bride’s home. According to the custom, the bridegroom can’t speak during the process of the wedding, all by accompanying Lang social intercourse and circle, until marrying the bride home. After arriving at the woman’s home, the bridegroom was arranged to have dinner alone. He could not do it. He could only feed the bridegroom with food. When the man comes to pick up the dowry and carry it out, the bridegroom can welcome the bride and go out.
The bride combs her young woman’s hair and wears brand-new clothes from top to bottom and from inside to outside. The dress is still green and black. The lace pattern of the skirt and the high collar of the coat are similar to those of the Mongols in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. A jacket worn by the bride is kept by a child in the bridal procession. The bride is carried into the sedan chair by her uncle and escorted to the man’s home by her younger brother. When the bride gets on the sedan chair, she has to cry, which means she can’t bear to leave home, and she has to cry all the way to the bridal chamber.

(4) Grand ceremony

Nadam convention is a traditional activity of Mongolian people with distinct national characteristics, and it is also a form of traditional sports activities loved by Mongolian people. Nadam in Xilingol League is the most representative.
“Nadam” is a Mongolian translation, meaning “entertainment, games”, to express the joy of harvest. Nadam, which starts on the fourth day of the sixth month of the lunar calendar (mostly in the seventh and eighth months of the Gregorian calendar when the grass is green and flowers are red and horses are strong and sheep are fat), is an annual traditional festival on the grassland.
Nadam is held in Gacha (Village), Sumu (District), or Qi county. People of all nationalities and religious beliefs can sign up to participate.
Nadam’s predecessor is the Mongolian People’s “sacrifice Oboe”, which is a unique national competitive event, entertainment, and sports created and handed down by the Mongolian people in their long-term nomadic life.
Nadam has a long history. According to the stone inscription of Genghis Khan engraved on the stone cliff, Nadam originated in the early days of the establishment of the Mongolian Khanate. As early as 1206, when Genghis Khan was elected as the Mongolian Khan, he held a “Dahuligetai” (grand gathering) every July to August to inspect his troops, maintain and distribute the grassland and gathered the leaders of various tribes together to express his wish Nadam is held for unity, friendship and harvest. In the beginning, there was only one event of archery, horse racing, or wrestling. In the yuan and Ming Dynasties, archery, horse racing, and wrestling became a fixed form. Later, Mongolian people also referred to the three sports as Nadam.
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