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Chinese opera - Opera business


Playing the characters in the play is a unique performance system of Chinese opera. In terms of content, Xingdang is an artistic and standardized image type of opera character. From a formal point of view, it is a classification system of performance programs with character. This performance system is a concentrated reflection of the formality of opera in the creation of characters. Every business is an imaging system and a corresponding performance program system. For example, Laosheng is an imaging system that contains a series of upright and resolute male characters over middle-aged. Such as Zhuge Liang, a wise military strategist in the Peking Opera ” Empty City Plan”, and Song Shijie in the Peking Opera “Four Jinshi”. These characters have similar personalities and temperaments, and they also have a set of corresponding procedures in their performances. As read rhyme white, with a true voice singing; style bold, simple, pure and honest; action figures with grace, Duan Fang, solemn tone. Since such characters must wear a beard that symbolizes a beard, there is another set of kung fu on the beard. Some dramas also created a set of tricks for the characters wearing hats and hats. Another example is Jing Xing, which is another type of image. Bao Zheng, Xiang Yu, Cao Cao, etc. belong to this system. This is a unique style of character modeling on the opera stage. It has two outstanding performances: one is that facial makeup needs to use a variety of colors and patterns to outline the face, so it is also commonly called Hualian; the other is that the personality is almost rough, strange, or heroic, so the performance requires a wide tone. Loud, the action styling is also thick. It can be seen that Xing Dang has not only the connotation of personality but also the corresponding stylized way of expression, which is the unity of image type and formula.
Because the internal characteristics of the thoughts and emotions of the characters in operas must be externalized, and they must be refined and standardized in terms of formulas, which will make all the various formulas of singing, thinking, playing and playing have a certain personality. After a long period of artistic training, some artistic images with similar personalities and corresponding performance formulas, performance techniques, and techniques gradually accumulate, gather, and become relatively stable. This is the formation of business. And when a business is formed, its accumulated performance program can be used as a means to create a new image. Such a cycle, continuous creation, and continuous development have promoted the gradual enrichment and improvement of the industry system. It can be said that the performance system of Xing Dang is the result of the image creation of the opera performance program and the starting point of image re-creation.
Each line of 生旦净末丑 has its own image connotation and a set of different procedures and regulations; each line has a distinct expression of modeling and beauty in form.

Male role

生 is one of the main types of opera performance line of business. Play as a male character. The name of Sheng was first seen in the Southern Opera of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and it refers to the male lead in the play. Traditional Chinese operas have had this profession. According to the different ages and identities of the characters they play, modern operas are divided into branches such as Laosheng, Xiaosheng, and Wusheng, each with its own characteristics. A branch of Laoshengsheng. It is also known as Xusheng because of more beards.
Older students a lifeline. Because there are more beards, it is also known as Xusheng. Acting as a middle-aged or elderly man, mostly positive characters with upright and resolute character, repetitive singing skills, using real voice, and chanting rhyme; the movements are solemn and elegant.
Niche a lifeline, corresponding with the older students, niche plays young men, do not wear beards. High-pitched and local small drama system dramas mostly sing in a real voice. The dramas of Kunqu Opera and the leather spring system are mostly false sounds, combined with real and false sounds.
Takefu plays the young man good at martial arts, where the sub- long by Takefu, bunt Takefu categories. Changkao Wusheng: Dressed up as “tie”, wearing a helmet, and wearing thick-soled boots to get the name. Playing as a general, generally use polearms. The performance requires grace, stability, and composure, with a general demeanor and heroic spirit. In white chanting, you must speak clearly, sharply and forcefully, and emphasize waist and leg skills and martial arts. Short hit martial arts: often use short weapons, perform with light and agile movements, and are known for being brave and fierce. The dancing figure is required to be beautiful, handsome, crisp, and clean. Wu Sheng also played the part in Wu Jing’s drama.
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Female role

One of the main types of opera performance in 旦, the collective term for female roles. As early as in Song Zaju, there was already the role of “pretending to be a dancer”. After the formation of the Southern Opera and the Northern Zazu in the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the name Dan was still used, and the application was slightly different. At the maturity stage of the Kunshan accent, four branches of Zhengdan, Xiaodan, Tiedan, and Laodan were formed. Since then, various dramas have multiplied into many branches. According to the age, personality, and status of the characters played in modern opera, Danjiao can be roughly divided into Zhengdan ( Tsing Yi ), Hua Dan, Wu Dan, Lao Dan, Cai Dan, and other specialties, each with its own characteristics.
Zhengdan Once a row. Originally named as the Northern Zaju Opera, it generally refers to the protagonist in the Dan Opera. In modern opera, Zhengdan has become a certain type of independent trade. Mainly play the demure and solemn youth and middle-aged women. Rhyme is often used for repetitive singing. It is also called “Tsing Yi” because it often wears Qingsu folds.
Hua Dan Dan a row. Play as a bright or lively young woman. Performances are often comedy, rework, and chanting.
Wu Dan Dan a row. Acting as women who are good at martial arts, according to the identity and technical characteristics of the characters, they are divided into two types: Ma Dan and Wu Dan. Sword horse dans rely more on horseback riding, holding long weapons, performing heavy figures, work-frame, and chanting.
Pantaloon Once a row. Play as an elderly woman Singing with the original voice, although the singing is similar to that of the old student, it has a feminine charm. Multiple singing skills, and heavy work. Some dramas call Lao Dan as Fu Dan or Po Dan.
Caidan a day trip, also known as “ugly Dan”, “old hag”, or cunning play funny female characters. The performance is full of comedy and farce, and it is really an ugly girl, so it is often played by both ugly acts. Some dramas are called “Shaking Dan”.
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Painted-face role

One of the mainline of business of the type of opera performances, commonly known as the painted face. The use of various colors and patterns to outline facial makeup with facial make-up is a prominent symbol, playing a male role with unique points in personality, temperament, and appearance. Or rough and bold, or staunch and straightforward, or sinister and vicious, or reckless and honest. The singing voice is loud and broad, the movements are open and closed, and the setbacks are sharp, which is a unique character modeling on the opera stage. It is said that this trip evolved from Song Zaju Fu Jing. After the rise of the “Huabe”, the scope of the net’s role has continued to expand. According to the different character and status of the character, the Jingxing is divided into several specialties, each with its own characteristics.
The one with large faces and clean lines is also called Zhengjing and Damian. Most of the high-ranking and stable characters in the play are played by court officials, so they win with grandeur in their appearance. In the performance, singing skills are emphasized, and the singing and acting require vigor and dignity.
The branch of Erhualian Jingxing, also known as Vice Jing, Shelving Hualian, and Ermian. Most of them play brave and bold positive characters. Mainly doing work, focusing on the body, and sometimes using fried sounds in singing and thinking, to embellish the power and character of specific characters. Some treacherous officials with white faces are also in the range of Erhualian.
Wu two flowers a net line, also known as beat painted face, Wu net. Do not sing or recite again.
Youhualian is commonly known as Majin. Use chest pads, fake buttocks, and other shape-ups (called tie-ups). They are characterized by their peculiar and cumbersome images, rugged and charming dance figures. Sometimes they use stunts such as fire breathing and teeth play. The famous ghost image of Zhong Kui is very unique on the stage of Chinese opera.
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Comic role

One of the main types of opera performance, comedy roles, 丑. Because facial makeup uses white powder to draw a small face between the nose and eye sockets, it is also called Xiaohualian. Song and Yuan Southern Opera has various operas that have this line of business roles. There are many kinds of characters, some are kind-hearted, humorous, and funny; some are treacherous, mean, and mean. In modern Chinese opera, the ugly performing art has made considerable progress, and different types of opera have their own style characteristics. Ugly performances generally do not re-sing but are based on clear, crisp, and fluent speech. Relatively speaking, the ugly performance program is not as rigorous as other trades but has its own style and norms, such as knee bending, squatting, tiptoeing, and shrugging are all basic ugly movements. According to the character’s identity, personality, and technical characteristics, it can be roughly divided into two branches: Wen Chou and Wu Chou, each with its own characteristics.
A branch of Wen Chou Chou Xing. Including a wide range of character types, all kinds of clowns except Wu Fu are played by Wen Chou.
Wu ugly scandal of one, commonly known as the opening jump. Play as a character with an alert, humor, and martial arts, eloquent, articulate, articulate, speak clearly, intonation, light and agile, vigorous and vigorous, good at jumping, jumping, and other martial arts.
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Business and character creation

In opera performances, there are divisions of life, denial, cleanliness, and ugliness, and each line has a set of technical rules—programs. There are branches in the performance, and the actors must use professional formulas instead of direct life materials to create characters. This is a major feature of traditional Chinese opera in its image-building methods. The basic content covered by the concept of “action” is the common life characteristics of a certain type of character (including age, identity, temperament, demeanor, behavior, behavior, etc.), and a set of performance programs that express these characteristics. Therefore, if an actor has mastered the procedures of a certain profession, it is equivalent to grasp to some extent the basic characteristics of the characters that can be included in the profession. Chinese painting pays attention to a few strokes to describe the shape and charm of the object, and certain formulas of the trade have been refined to such a degree, it often captures the characteristics of the character’s spiritual temperament in a few seconds.
After all, the business formula is a means of modeling, a means of expression. Mastering the program does not mean having a specific role. There are two ways of acting as a character and acting. In Chinese performing arts, the former is the right way, and the latter is the wrong way. Traditionally outstanding actors, when they use appropriate formulas to create specific roles, always choose, organize, and concentrate the formulas according to their own understanding of life and roles, so that they can adapt to the roles; A set of ready-made programs is pieced together and installed on the character, even if the character creation is completed. Even if you play the traditional image created by the predecessors, you have to go through some “re-creation” work, that is, through your own experience, make this image live on yourself, and constantly enrich it according to your new experience, Enrich it, so that the image gets a new color. In practice, we often encounter situations where a certain profession cannot summarize the character characteristics of a certain character. In other words, a certain profession’s formula alone cannot express the character. At this time, the formula must be developed to be able to adapt to the requirements of character creation. The long-formed technical rhythms are also called formulas, such as hair throwing, round field, side sweeping, harrier turning over, oolong twisting column, and so on.
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